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1. J. A. Ewing, The Steam-Engine and Other Heat-Engines ( Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1910).
2. J. S. Kilby, U.S. patent 3138743A (June 23, 1964).
3. C. D. West, Liquid Piston Stirling Engines ( Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1983).
4. C. D. West, “ Dynamic Analysis of the Fluidyne,” in 18th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference ( Orlando, FL, 1983);
4. L. F. Goldberg and C. J. Rallis, “ A prototype liquid-piston free-displacer Stirling engine,” in Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference ( American Chemical Society, Boston, MA, 1979), Vol. 1;
4. A. D. Geisow, The Onset of Oscillations in a Lossless Fluidyne ( UKAEA, Harwell Atomic Energy Research Establishment, 1976);
4. J. D. Van de Ven, “ Mobile hydraulic power supply: Liquid piston Stirling engine pump,” Renew. Energy 34(11), 23172322 (2009).
5. C. W. Stammers, “ Operation of the fluidyne heat engine at low differential temperatures,” J. Sound Vib. 63(4), 507516 (1979).
6. D. C. Mosby, “The Fluidyne Heat Engine,” thesis, Naval Postgraduate School, 1978.
7.See supplementary material at for one-cylinder engine.[Supplementary Material]
8. J. W. Stevens, R. O. Kerns, and J. W. Mason, paper presented at the 1st International e-Conference on Energies, 2014.
9. N. T. Nguyen, T. Q. Truong, K. K. Wong, S. S. Ho, and C. L. N. Low, “ Micro check valves for integration into polymeric microfluidic devices,” J. Micromech. Microeng. 14(1), 6975 (2004).

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Heat engines utilizing the Stirling cycle may run on low temperature differentials with the capacity to function at high efficiency due to their near-reversible operation. However, current approaches to building Stirling engines are laborious and costly. Typically the components are assembled by hand and additional components require a corresponding increase in manufacturing complexity, akin to electronics before the integrated circuit. We present a simple and integrated approach to fabricating Stirling engines with precisely designed cylinders. We utilize computer aided design and one-step, planar machining to form all components of the engine. The engine utilizes liquid pistons and displacers to harness useful work from heat absorption and rejection. As a proof of principle of the integrated design, a two-cylinder engine is produced and characterized and liquid pumping is demonstrated.


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