Skip to main content
banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.
1. Y. Li, L.-W. Tan, X.-T. Hao, K. S. Ong, F. Zhu, and L.-S. Hung, Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(15), 153508 (2005).
2. K.-H. Kim, N. M. Park, T. Youb Kim, K. Sik Cho, J. Ik Lee, H. Yong Chu, and G. Yong Sung, ETRI J. 27(4), 405 (2005).
3. H. Zhu, Z. Xiao, D. Liu, Y. Li, N. J. Weadock, Z. Fang, J. Huang, and L. Hu, Energy Environ. Sci. 6(7), 2105 (2013).
4. N. Lin, J. Huang, and A. Dufresne, Nanoscale 4(11), 3274 (2012).
5. J. Vartiainen, T. Pöhler, K. Sirola, L. Pylkkänen, H. Alenius, J. Hokkinen, U. Tapper, P. Lahtinen, A. Kapanen, K. Putkisto, P. Hiekkataipale, P. Eronen, J. Ruokolainen, and A. Laukkanen, Cellulose 18(3), 775 (2011).
6. N. Lavoine, I. Desloges, A. Dufresne, and J. Bras, Carbohydr. Polym. 90(2), 735 (2012).
7. Y. Habibi, L. A. Lucia, and O. J. Rojas, Chem. Rev. 110(6), 3479 (2010).
8. R. J. Moon, A. Martini, J. Nairn, J. Simonsen, and J. Youngblood, Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(7), 3941 (2011).
9. L. Hu, G. Zheng, J. Yao, N. Liu, B. Weil, M. Eskilsson, E. Karabulut, Z. Ruan, S. Fan, J. T. Bloking, M. D. McGehee, L. Wagberg, and Y. Cui, Energy Environ. Sci. 6(2), 513 (2013).
10. I. Siró and D. Plackett, Cellulose 17(3), 459 (2010).
11. H. Fukuzumi, T. Saito, T. Iwata, Y. Kumamoto, and A. Isogai, Biomacromolecules 10(1), 162 (2008).
12. H. Yu, Z. Qin, B. Liang, N. Liu, Z. Zhou, and L. Chen, J. Mater. Chem. A 1(12), 3938 (2013).
13. Y. Zhou, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, T. M. Khan, J.-C. Liu, J. Hsu, J. Won Shim, A. Dindar, J. P. Youngblood, R. J. Moon, and B. Kippelen, Sci. Rep. 3, 1536 (2013).
14. C. Legnani, C. Vilani, V. L. Calil, H. S. Barud, W. G. Quirino, C. A. Achete, S. J. L. Ribeiro, and M. Cremona, Thin Solid Films 517(3), 1016 (2008).
15. Y. Okahisa, A. Yoshida, S. Miyaguchi, and H. Yano, Compos. Sci. Technol. 69(11–12), 1958 (2009).
16. S. Ummartyotin, J. Juntaro, M. Sain, and H. Manuspiya, Ind. Crops Prod. 35(1), 92 (2012).
17. C. W. Tang and S. A. Vanslyke, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913 (1987).
18. M. G. Helander, Z. B. Wang, J. Qiu, M. T. Greiner, D. P. Puzzo, Z. W. Liu, and Z. H. Lu, Science 332(6032), 944 (2011).
19. J. S. Kim, P. K. H. Ho, N. C. Greenham, and R. H. Friend, J. Appl. Phys. 88(2), 1073 (2000).
20. T. Dobbertin, M. Kroeger, D. Heithecker, D. Schneider, D. Metzdorf, H. Neuner, E. Becker, H. H. Johannes, and W. Kowalsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(2), 284 (2003).
21. T. Dobbertin, O. Werner, J. Meyer, A. Kammoun, D. Schneider, T. Riedl, E. Becker, H. H. Johannes, and W. Kowalsky, Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(24), 5071 (2003).
22. C. W. Chen, C. L. Lin, and C. C. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(13), 2469 (2004).
23. M. Thomschke, S. Hofmann, S. Olthof, M. Anderson, H. Kleemann, M. Schober, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(8), 083304 (2011).
24. E. Najafabadi, K. A. Knauer, W. Haske, C. Fuentes-Hernandez, and B. Kippelen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(2), 023304 (2012).
25. K. A. Knauer, E. Najafabadi, W. Haske, and B. Kippelen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(10), 103304 (2012).
26. S. Beck-Candanedo, M. Roman, and D. G. Gray, Biomacromolecules 6(2), 1048 (2005).
27. S. Hofmann, M. Thomschke, P. Freitag, M. Furno, B. Lussem, and K. Leo, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253308 (2010).
28. C.-C. Liu, S.-H. Liu, K.-C. Tien, M.-H. Hsu, H.-W. Chang, C.-K. Chang, C.-J. Yang, and C.-C. Wu, Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(10), 103302 (2009).
29.See supplementary material at for a video of these OLEDs on CNC substrates dissolving in deionized water; additionally, Figures S1 and S2 show photographs of filtered flakes of the constituent OLED on filter paper and the solution after filtering, respectively, while Figure S3 shows a still from the video of OLEDs on CNC substrates dissolving in deionized water.[Supplementary Material]

Data & Media loading...


Article metrics loading...



Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) fabricated on recyclable and biodegradable substrates are a step towards the realization of a sustainable OLED technology. We report on efficient OLEDs with an inverted top-emitting architecture on recyclable cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) substrates. The OLEDs have a bottom cathode of Al/LiF deposited on a 400 nm thick N,N′-Di-[(1-naphthyl)-N,N′-diphenyl]-(1,1′-biphenyl)-4,4′-diamine (α-NPD) layer and a top anode of Au/MoO. They achieve a maximum luminance of 74 591 cd/m2 with a current efficacy of 53.7 cd/A at a luminance of 100 cd/m2 and 41.7 cd/A at 1000 cd/m2. It is shown that the α-NPD layer on the CNC substrate is necessary for achieving high performance OLEDs. The electroluminescent spectra of the OLEDs as a function of viewing angle are presented and show that the OLED spectra are subject to microcavity effects.


Full text loading...


Access Key

  • FFree Content
  • OAOpen Access Content
  • SSubscribed Content
  • TFree Trial Content
752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd