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O core-shell nanowire photovoltaics
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Semiconductor nanowires are among the most promising candidates for next generation photovoltaics. This is due to their outstanding optical and electrical properties which provide large optical cross sections while simultaneously decoupling the photon absorption and charge carrier extraction length scales. These effects relax the requirements for both the minority carrier diffusion length and the amount of semiconductor needed. Metal-semiconductor core-shell nanowires have previously been predicted to show even better optical absorption than solid semiconductor nanowires and offer the additional advantage of a local metal core contact. Here, we fabricate and analyze such a geometry using a single Au-Cu2O core-shell nanowire
photovoltaic cell as a model system. Spatially resolved photocurrent maps reveal that although the minority carrier diffusion length in the Cu
2O shell is less than 1 μm, the radial contact geometry with the incorporated metal electrode still allows for photogenerated carrier collection along an entire nanowire. Current-voltage measurements yield an open-circuit voltage of 600 mV under laser illumination and a dark diode turn-on voltage of 1 V. This study suggests the metal-semiconductor core-shell nanowire concept could be extended to low-cost, large-scale photovoltaic devices, utilizing for example, metal
nanowire electrode grids coated with epitaxially grown semiconductor shells.
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