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Increasing the active surface of titanium islands on graphene by nitrogen sputtering
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Titanium-island formation on graphene as a function of defect density is investigated. When depositing titanium on pristine graphene,
titanium atoms cluster and form islands with an average diameter of about 10 nm and an average height of a few atomic layers. We show that if defects are introduced in the graphene by ion bombardment, the mobility of the deposited titanium atoms is reduced and the average diameter of the islands decreases to 5 nm with monoatomic height. This results in an optimized coverage for hydrogen storage applications, since the actual titanium surface available per unit graphene area is significantly increased.
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