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20.Manuscripts (unpublished). We even found that compounds which are easily oxidized, i.e., by molecular oxygen exhibit p- and not n-doping behavior due to their Lewis-acidity.

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We demonstrate the usage of the Lewis-acidic copper(II)hexafluoroacetylacetonate (Cu(hfac)) and copper(II)trifluoroacetylacetonate (Cu(tfac)) as low-cost p-dopants for conductivity enhancement of solution processable hole transport layers based on small molecules in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). The materials were clearly soluble in mixtures of environmentally friendly anisole and xylene and spin-coated under ambient atmosphere. Enhancements of two and four orders of magnitude, reaching 4.0 × 10−11 S/cm with a dopant concentration of only 2 mol% Cu(hfac) and 1.5 × 10−9 S/cm with 5 mol% Cu(tfac) in 2,2′,7,7′-tetra(N,N-ditolyl)amino-9,9-spiro-bifluorene (spiro-TTB), respectively, were achieved. Red light emitting diodes were fabricated with reduced driving voltages and enhanced current and power efficiencies (8.6 lm/W with Cu(hfac) and 5.6 lm/W with Cu(tfac)) compared to the OLED with undoped spiro-TTB (3.9 lm/W). The OLED with Cu(hfac) doped spiro-TTB showed an over 8 times improved LT lifetime of 70 h at a starting luminance of 5000 cd/m2. The LT lifetime of the reference OLED with PEDOT:PSS was only 8 h. Both non-optimized OLEDs were operated at similar driving voltage and power efficiency.


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