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The congruent evaporation temperature of GaAs (001) is critical for many technological processes and is fundamental to the control and stability of Ga droplets for quantum structure fabrication. We apply the technique of local droplet etching (LDE) to measure for technologically important molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) grown GaAs (001). Below , Ga droplets deposited on the surface shrink and form nanoholes via LDE and thermal widening. Above , droplets grow by capturing excess Ga. From the transition between both regimes, we determine  = 680 ± 10 °C. Additionally, we find that the nanohole/droplet densities follow an Arrhenius-type temperature dependence with an activation energy of 1.31 eV. The method probes the stability of pre-existing droplets formed by deposition and so avoids the complication of nucleation barriers and readily allows the measurement of for technologically important planar GaAs surfaces in any standard MBE system.


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