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/content/aip/journal/apl/107/24/10.1063/1.4937998
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/content/aip/journal/apl/107/24/10.1063/1.4937998
2015-12-14
2016-09-28

Abstract

CuZnSnS (CZTS) solar cells typically include a CdSbuffer layer in between the CZTS and ZnO front contact. For sulfide CZTS, with a bandgap around 1.5 eV, the band alignment between CZTS and CdS is not ideal (“cliff-like”), which enhances interface recombination. In this work, we show how a ZnSnO (ZTO) buffer layer can replace CdS, resulting in improved open circuit voltages (V) for CZTS devices. The ZTO is deposited by atomic layer deposition(ALD), with a process previously developed for Cu(In,Ga)Sesolar cells. By varying the ALD process temperature, the position of the conduction band minimum of the ZTO is varied in relation to that of CZTS. A ZTO process at 95 °C is found to give higher V and efficiency as compared with the CdS reference devices. For a ZTO process at 120 °C, where the conduction band alignment is expected to be the same as for CdS, the V and efficiency is similar to the CdS reference. Further increase in conduction band minimum by lowering the deposition temperature to 80 °C shows blocking of forward current and reduced fill factor, consistent with barrier formation at the junction. Temperature-dependent current voltage analysis gives an activation energy for recombination of 1.36 eV for the best ZTO device compared with 0.98 eV for CdS. We argue that the V of the best ZTO devices is limited by bulk recombination, in agreement with a room temperature photoluminescence peak at around 1.3 eV for both devices, while the CdS device is limited by interface recombination.

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