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A transmission type flat-panel X-ray source in diode structure was fabricated. Large-scale patterned ZnOnanowires grown on a glass substrate by thermal oxidation were utilized as field emitters, and tungsten thin film coated on silica glass was used as the transmission anode. Uniform distribution of X-ray generation was achieved, which benefited from the uniform electron emission from ZnOnanowires. Self-ballasting effect induced by the intrinsic resistance of ZnOnanowire and decreasing of screening effect caused by patterned emitters account for the uniform emission. Characteristic X-ray peaks of W-L lines and bremsstrahlung X-rays have been observed under anode voltages at a range of 18–20 kV, the latter of which were the dominant X-ray signals. High-resolution X-rayimages with spatial resolution less than 25 m were obtained by the flat-panel X-ray source. The high resolution was attributed to the small divergence angle of the emitted X-rays from the transmission X-ray source.


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