Skip to main content
banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.
1. A. Hayat, P. Ginzburg, and M. Orenstein, “ Observation of two-photon emission from semiconductors,” Nat. Photonics 2, 238241 (2008).
2. W. Shockley and H. J. Queisser, “ Detailed balance limit of efficiency of p-n junction solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 32(3), 510519 (1961).
3. H. Shpaisman, O. Niitsoo, I. Lubomirsky, and D. Cahen, “ Can up- and down-conversion and multi-exciton generation improve photovoltaics?,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 92(12), 15411546 (2008).
4. F. Auzel, C. R. Acad. Sci. 262, 1016 (1966).
5. R. C. Johnson and R. E. Merrifield, “ Effects of magnetic fields on the mutual annihilation of triplet excitons in anthracene crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 1(2), 896902 (1970).
6. D. L. Dexter, “ A theory of sensitized luminescence in solids,” J. Chem. Phys. 21(5), 836 (1953).
7. R. R. Islangulov, D. V. Kozlov, and F. N. Castellano, “ Low power upconversion using MLCT sensitizers,” Chem. Commun. 1(30), 37763778 (2005).
8. P. C. Boutin, K. P. Ghiggino, T. L. Kelly, and R. P. Steer, “ Photon upconversion by triplet–triplet annihilation in Ru(bpy) 3 - and DPA-functionalized polymers,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4(23), 41134118 (2013).
9. S. H. Lee, M. A. Ayer, R. Vadrucci, C. Weder, and Y. C. Simon, “ Light upconversion by triplet–triplet annihilation in diphenylanthracene-based copolymers,” Polym. Chem. 5, 68986904 (2014).
10. H. Uoyama, K. Goushi, K. Shizu, H. Nomura, and C. Adachi, “ Highly efficient organic light-emitting diodes from delayed fluorescence,” Nature 492(7428), 234238 (2012).
11. D. Y. Kondakov, “ Characterization of triplet-triplet annihilation in organic light-emitting diodes based on anthracene derivatives,” J. Appl. Phys. 102, 114504 (2007).
12. D. Y. Kondakov, T. D. Pawlik, T. K. Hatwar, and J. P. Spindler, “ Triplet annihilation exceeding spin statistical limit in highly efficient fluorescent,” J. Appl. Phys. 106, 124510 (2009).
13. F. Deng, W. Sun, and F. N. Castellano, “ Texaphyrin sensitized near-IR-to-visible photon upconversion,” Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 13, 813 (2014).
14. T. Furukawa, H. Nakanotani, M. Inoue, and C. Adachi, “ Dual enhancement of electroluminescence efficiency and operational stability by rapid upconversion of triplet excitons in OLEDs,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8429 (2015).
15. T. N. Singh-Rachford and F. N. Castellano, “ Photon upconversion based on sensitized triplet–triplet annihilation,” Coord. Chem. Rev. 254(21–22), 25602573 (2010).
16. C.-L. Wu, C.-H. Chang, Y.-T. Chang, C.-T. Chen, C.-T. Chen, and C.-J. Su, “ High efficiency non-dopant blue organic light-emitting diodes based on anthracene-based fluorophores with molecular design of charge transport and red-shifted emission proof,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2, 7188 (2014).
17. A. S. D. Sandanayaka, K. Yoshida, T. Matsushima, and C. Adachi, “ Exciton quenching behavior of thermally activated delayed fluorescence molecules by charge carriers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 119(14), 76317636 (2015).

Data & Media loading...


Article metrics loading...



The ability to upconvert light is useful for a range of applications, from biological imaging to solar cells. But modern technologies have struggled to upconvert incoherent incident light at low intensities. Here, we report solid state photon upconversion employing triplet-triplet exciton annihilation in an organic semiconductor, sensitized by a thermally activated-delayed fluorescence (TADF) dye. Compared to conventional phosphorescent sensitizers, the TADF dye maximizes the wavelength shift in upconversion due to its small singlet-triplet splitting. The efficiency of energy transfer from the TADF dye is 9.1%, and the conversion yield of sensitizer exciton pairs to singlet excitons in the annihilator is 1.1%. Our results demonstrate upconversion in solid state geometries and with non-heavy metal-based sensitizer materials.


Full text loading...


Access Key

  • FFree Content
  • OAOpen Access Content
  • SSubscribed Content
  • TFree Trial Content
752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd