No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.
Black phosphorus saturable absorber for ultrashort pulse generation
2. R. Carriles, D. N. Schafer, K. E. Sheetz, J. J. Field, R. Cisek, V. Barzda, A. W. Sylvester, and J. A. Squier, “ Imaging techniques for harmonic and multiphoton absorption fluorescence microscopy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80, 081101 (2009).
5. U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “ Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM's) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
6. D. J. H. C. Maas, A. R. Bellancourt, M. Hoffmann, B. Rudin, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “ Growth parameter optimization for fast quantum dot SESAMs,” Opt. Express 16, 18646–18656 (2008).
8. Q. Bao, H. Zhang, Y. Wang, Z. Ni, Y. Yan, Z. X. Shen, K. P. Loh, and D. Y. Tang, “ Atomic-layer graphene as a saturable absorber for ultrafast pulsed lasers,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 19, 3077–3083 (2009).
9. T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “ Nanotube–polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
10. C. Zhao, H. Zhang, X. Qi, Y. Chen, Z. Wang, S. Wen, and D. Tang, “ Ultra-short pulse generation by a topological insulator based saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 211106 (2012).
11. J. Sotor, G. Sobon, W. Macherzynski, P. Paletko, K. Grodecki, and K. M. Abramski, “ Mode-locking in Er-doped fiber laser based on mechanically exfoliated Sb2Te3 saturable absorber,” Opt. Mater. Express 4, 1–6 (2014).
12. K. Wang, J. Wang, J. Fan, M. Lotya, A. O'Neill, D. Fox, Y. Feng, X. Zhang, B. Jiang, Q. Zhao, H. Zhang, J. N. Coleman, L. Zhang, and W. J. Blau, “ Ultrafast saturable absorption of two-dimensional MoS2 nanosheets,” ACS Nano 7, 9260–9267 (2013).
13. S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “ Laser mode locking using a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 51–59 (2004).
14. A. Schmidt, S. Rivier, G. Steinmeyer, J. H. Yim, W. B. Cho, S. Lee, F. Rotermund, M. C. Pujol, X. Mateos, M. Aguiló, F. Díaz, V. Petrov, and U. Griebner, “ Passive mode locking of Yb:KLuW using a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 33, 729–731 (2008).
15. J. Sotor, G. Sobon, I. Pasternak, A. Krajewska, W. Strupinski, and K. M. Abramski, “ Simultaneous mode-locking at 1565 nm and 1944 nm in fiber laser based on common graphene saturable absorber,” Opt. Express 21, 18994–19002 (2013).
16. A. Martinez, K. Fuse, and S. Yamashita, “ Mechanical exfoliation of graphene for the passive mode-locking of fiber lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99, 121107 (2011).
18. J. Ma, G. Xie, P. Lv, W. Gao, P. Yuan, L. Qian, U. Griebner, V. Petrov, H. Yu, H. Zhang, and J. Wang, “ Wavelength-versatile graphene-gold film saturable absorber mirror for ultra-broadband mode-locking of bulk lasers,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5016 (2014).
19. W. B. Cho, J. W. Kim, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, S. Y. Choi, I. H. Baek, K. Kim, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “ High-quality, large-area monolayer graphene for efficient bulk laser mode-locking near 1.25 μm,” Opt. Lett. 36, 4089–4091 (2011).
20. C. A. Zaugg, Z. Sun, V. J. Wittwer, D. Popa, S. Milana, T. S. Kulmala, R. S. Sundaram, M. Mangold, O. D. Sieber, M. Golling, Y. Lee, J. H. Ahn, A. C. Ferrari, and U. Keller, “ Ultrafast and widely tuneable vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser, mode-locked by a graphene-integrated distributed Bragg reflector,” Opt. Express 21, 31548–31559 (2013).
21. S. Husaini and R. G. Bedford, “ Graphene saturable absorber for high power semiconductor disk laser mode-locking,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 104, 161107 (2014).
22. J. Du, Q. Wang, G. Jiang, C. Xu, C. Zhao, Y. Xiang, Y. Chen, S. Wen, and H. Zhang, “ Ytterbium-doped fiber laser passively mode locked by few-layer Molybdenum Disulfide (MoS2) saturable absorber functioned with evanescent field interaction,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6346 (2014).
27. M. Liu, X. Yin, E. Ulin-Avila, B. Geng, T. Zentgraf, L. Ju, F. Wang, and X. Zhang, “ A graphene-based broadband optical modulator,” Nature 474, 64–67 (2011).
28. Q. Bao, H. Zhang, B. Wang, Z. Ni, C. H. Y. X. Lim, Y. Wang, D. Y. Tang, and K. P. Loh, “ Broadband graphene polarizer,” Nat. Photonics 5, 411–415 (2011).
29. X. Wang, L. Zhi, and K. Müllen, “ Transparent, conductive graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells,” Nano Lett. 8, 323–327 (2008).
30. Y. Wu, K. A. Jenkins, A. Valdes-Garcia, D. B. Farmer, Y. Zhu, A. A. Bol, C. Dimitrakopoulos, W. Zhu, F. Xia, P. Avouris, and Y.-M. Lin, “ State-of-the-art graphene high-frequency electronics,” Nano Lett. 12, 3062–3067 (2012).
32. R. Balog, B. Jørgensen, L. Nilsson, M. Andersen, E. Rienks, M. Bianchi, M. Fanetti, E. Lægsgaard, A. Baraldi, S. Lizzit, Z. Sljivancanin, F. Besenbacher, B. Hammer, T. G. Pedersen, P. Hofmann, and L. Hornekær, “ Bandgap opening in graphene induced by patterned hydrogen adsorption,” Nat. Mater. 9, 315–319 (2010).
33. Y. Zhang, T-T. Tang, C. Girit, Z. Hao, M. C. Martin, A. Zettl, M. F. Crommie, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “ Direct observation of a widely tunable bandgap in bilayer graphene,” Nature 459, 820–823 (2009).
34. F. Xia, H. Wang, and Y. Jia, “ Rediscovering black phosphorus as an anisotropic layered material for optoelectronics and electronics,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4458 (2014).
36. H. Liu, A. T. Neal, Z. Zhu, Z. Luo, X. Xu, D. Tománek, and P. D. Ye, “ Phosphorene: An unexplored 2D semiconductor with a high hole mobility,” ACS Nano 8, 4033–4041 (2014).
37. Y. Cai, G. Zhang, and Y-W. Zhang, “ Layer-dependent band alignment and work function of few-layer phosphorene,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6677 (2014).
38. J. Qiao, X. Kong, Z.-X. Hu, F. Yang, and W. Ji, “ High-mobility transport anisotropy and linear dichroism in few-layer black phosphorus,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4475 (2014).
39. M. Engel, M. Steiner, and P. Avouris, “ Black phosphorus photodetector for multispectral, high-resolution imaging,” Nano Lett. 14, 6414–6417 (2014).
40. H. Yuan, X. Liu, F. Afshinmanesh, W. Li, G. Xu, J. Sun, B. Lian, A. G. Curto, G. Ye, Y. Hikita et al., “ Polarization-sensitive broadband photodetector using a black phosphorus vertical p–n junction,” Nat. Nanotechnol. (published online 2015).
41. M. Buscema, D. J. Groenendijk, G. A. Steele, H. S. J. van der Zant, and A. Castellanos-Gomez, “ Photovoltaic effect in few-layer black phosphorus PN junctions defined by local electrostatic gating,” Nat. Commun. 5, 4651 (2014).
42. J. Zhang, H. J. Liu, L. Cheng, J. Wei, J. H. Liang, D. D. Fan, J. Shi, X. F. Tang, and Q. J. Zhang, “ Phosphorene nanoribbon as a promising candidate for thermoelectric applications,” Sci. Rep. 4, 6452 (2014).
43. L. Kou, T. Frauenheim, and C. Chen, “ Phosphorene as a superior gas sensor: Selective adsorption and distinct I–V response,” J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5, 2675–2681 (2014).
44. J. Sun, G. Zheng, H-W. Lee, N. Liu, H. Wang, H. Yao, W. Yang, and Y. Cui, “ Formation of stable phosphorus–carbon bond for enhanced performance in black phosphorus nanoparticle–graphite composite battery anodes,” Nano Lett. 14, 4573–4580 (2014).
45. D. Hanlon
, C. Backes
, E. Doherty
, C. S. Cucinotta
, N. C. Berner
, C. Boland
, K. Lee
, P. Lynch
, Z. Gholamvand
, A. Harvey et al.
, “ Liquid exfoliation of solvent-stabilised black phosphorus: applications beyond electronics
,” e-print arXiv:1501.01881
46. S. B. Lu, L. L. Miao, Z. N. Guo, X. Qi, C. J. Zhao, H. Zhang, S. C. Wen, D. Y. Tang, and D. Y. Fan, “ Broadband nonlinear optical response in multi-layer black phosphorus: An emerging infrared and mid-infrared optical material,” Opt. Express 23, 11183–11194 (2015).
47. Y. Chen, G. Jiang, S. Chen, Z. Guo, X. Yu, C. Zhao, H. Zhang, Q. Bao, S. Wen, D. Tang, and D. Fan, “ Mechanically exfoliated black phosphorus as a new saturable absorber for both Q-switching and Mode-locking laser operation,” Opt. Express 23, 12823–12833 (2015).
48. T. Low, A. S. Rodin, A. Carvalho, Y. Jiang, H. Wang, F. Xia, and A. H. Castro Neto, “ Tunable optical properties of multilayer black phosphorus thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 90, 075434 (2014).
49. T. R. Schibli, E. R. Thoen, F. X. Kärtner, and E. P. Ippen, “ Suppression of Q-switched mode locking and break-up into multiple pulses by inverse saturable absorption,” Appl. Phys. B 70, S41–S49 (2000).
51. R. Grange, M. Haiml, R. Paschotta, G. J. Spuhler, L. Krainer, M. Golling, O. Ostinelli, and U. Keller, “ New regime of inverse saturable absorption for self-stabilizing passively mode-locked lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 80, 151–158 (2005).
52. H. Yang, X. Feng, Q. Wang, H. Huang, W. Chen, A. T. S. Wee, and W. Ji, “ Giant two-photon absorption in bilayer graphene,” Nano Lett. 11, 2622–2627 (2011).
Article metrics loading...
Low-dimensional materials, due to their unique and versatile properties, are very interesting for numerous applications in electronics and optoelectronics. Recently rediscovered black phosphorus, with a graphite-like layered structure, can be effectively exfoliated up to the single atomic layer called phosphorene. Contrary to graphene, it possesses a direct band gap controllable by the number of stacked atomic layers. For those reasons, black phosphorus is now intensively investigated and can complement or replace graphene in various photonics and electronics applications. Here, we demonstrate that black phosphorus can serve as a broadband saturable absorber and can be used for ultrashort optical pulse generation. The mechanically exfoliated ∼300 nm thick layers of black phosphorus were transferred onto the fiber core, and under pulsed excitation at 1560 nm wavelength, its transmission increases by 4.6%. We have demonstrated that the saturable absorption of black phosphorus is polarization sensitive. The fabricated device was used to mode-lock an Er-doped fiber laser. The generated optical solitons with the 10.2 nm bandwidth and 272 fs duration were centered at 1550 nm. The obtained results unambiguously show that black phosphorus can be effectively used for ultrashort pulse generation with performances similar or even better than currently used graphene or carbon nanotubes. This application of black phosphorus proves its great potential to future practical use in photonics.
Full text loading...
Most read this month