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Optofluidic distributed feedback lasers with evanescent pumping: Reduced threshold and angular dispersion analysis
H. Ghafouri-Shiraz, Distributed Feedback Laser Diodes and Optical Tunable Filters ( John Wiley & Sons, 2004).
Y. Fainman, L. Lee, D. Psaltis, and C. Yang, Optofluidics: Fundamentals, Devices, and Applications, 1st ed. ( McGraw-Hill, Inc., New York, NY, USA, 2010).
Z. Li, Z. Zhang, A. Scherer, and D. Psaltis, in Proceedings of the 2008 Digest of the IEEE/LEOS Summer Topical Meetings (2006), Vol. 14, p. 58.
A. B. Buckman, Guided-Wave Photonics ( Saunders College Publishing, 1992).
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We demonstrate an evanescently pumped water-based optofluidic distributed feedback (DFB) laser with a record low pump threshold of . The low threshold results from an optimized mode shape, which is achieved by a low refractive index substrate, and from the use of a mixed-order DFB
grating. Investigating the photonic
band structure via angular dispersion analysis both above and below lasing threshold allows us to measure the refractive index of the liquid gain layer and to determine the device parameters such as the waveguide core layer thickness. We show that it is possible to tailor the divergence of the lasing emission by varying the number of second order grating periods used for outcoupling.
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