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Breaking the efficiency limit for high-frequency blazed multilayer soft x-ray gratings: Conical vs classical diffraction
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High-frequency multilayer-coated blazed diffraction gratings (HFMBGs) are most promising elements for ultrahigh resolution soft x-ray
spectroscopy. As it has been demonstrated recently [Voronov et al., Opt. Express 23, 4771 (2015)], the efficiency limit for in-plane diffraction can exceed 2–3 times, in higher orders too, when the period of a HFMBG is shorter than an attenuation length for soft x-rays and a bilayer asymmetry is designed. In this letter, using numerical experiments based on the rigorous electromagnetic theory, a possibility of off-plane diffraction and symmetrical multilayer coatings to enhance the efficiency of soft-x-ray high-order HFMBGs very closely to the absolute limit, i.e., 0.92–0.98 of the reflectance of the respective W/B4C multilayer, has been demonstrated.
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