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Bubble-free patterning with low line edge roughness by ultraviolet nanoimprinting using trans-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene condensable gas
M. Colburn, S. Johnson, M. Stewart, S. Damle, T. Bailey, B. Choi, M. Wedlake, T. Michaelson, S. V. Sreenivasan, J. Ekerdt, and C. G. Willson, Proc. SPIE 3676, 379 (1999).
L. Wan, R. Ruiz, H. Gao, K. C. Patel, J. Lille, G. Zeltzer, E. A. Dobisz, A. Bogdanov, P. F. Nealey, and T. R. Albrecht, J. Micro/Nanolithogr. MEMS, MOEMS 11, 031405 (2012).
S. Iyoshi, M. Okada, T. Katase, K. Tone, K. Kobayashi, S. Kaneko, Y. Haruyama, M. Nakagawa, H. Hiroshima, and S. Matsui, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 51, 06FJ08 (2012).
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Ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) in pentafluoropropane (PFP) is recognized as one of the most promising methods to achieve ultrahigh-speed UV-NIL without air bubble defects. Although liquefied PFP dissolved in the resin reduces the resin viscosity and demolding force, it also causes large shrinkage of the pattern and degrades the pattern quality compared with that achieved in air or He environments. In this work, UV-NIL in trans-1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (TFP), which has a higher vapor pressure than that of PFP, was investigated with respect to throughput and pattern quality characteristics to find an alternative to PFP. Bubble-free filling of UV-NIL was demonstrated in an TFP atmosphere: the cavity-filling time was about four times shorter than that in He, and the fine values of line edge roughnesses comparable to those achieved in air or He were obtained.
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