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Metastable phase transformation and hcp-ω
transformation pathways in Ti and Zr under high hydrostatic pressures
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The energy landscape of Zr at high hydrostatic
pressure suggests that its transformation behavior is strongly pressure dependent. This is in contrast to the known transition mechanism in Ti, which is essentially independent of hydrostatic
pressure. Generalized solid-state nudged elastic band calculations at constant pressure shows that α-Zr transforms like Ti only at the lowest pressure inside the stability field of ω-phase. Different pathways apply at higher pressures where the energy landscape contains several high barriers so that metastable states are expected, including the appearance of a transient bcc phase at ca. 23 GPa. The global driving force for the hcp-ω transition increases strongly with increasing pressure and reaches 23.7 meV/atom at 23 GPa. Much of this energy relates to the excess volume of the hcp phase compared with its ω phase.
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