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Cross-section imaging and p-type doping assessment of ZnO/ZnO:Sb core-shell nanowires by scanning capacitance microscopy and scanning spreading resistance microscopy
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ZnO/ZnO:Sb core-shell structured nanowires (NWs) were grown by the metal organic chemical vapor deposition method where the shell was doped with antimony
(Sb) in an attempt to achieve ZnO p-type conduction. To directly investigate the Sb
doping effect in ZnO, scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) and scanning spreading resistance
microscopy (SSRM) were performed on the NWs' cross-sections mapping their two dimensional (2D) local electrical properties. Although no direct p-type inversion in ZnO was revealed, a lower net electron concentration was pointed out for the Sb-doped ZnO shell layer with respect to the non-intentionally doped
ZnO core, indicating an evident compensating effect as a result of the Sb incorporation, which can be ascribed to the formation of Sb-related acceptors. The results demonstrate SCM/SSRM investigation being a direct and effective approach for characterizing radial semiconductor one-dimensional (1D) structures and, particularly, for the doping study on the ZnO nanomaterial towards its p-type realization.
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