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HIGH‐ORDER TRANSVERSE CAVITY MODES IN HETEROJUNCTION DIODE LASERS
1.N. E. Byer and J. K. Butler, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 6, 291 (1970).
1.References to previous work concerning waveguiding are listed in this paper. High‐order modes in diode lasers were first reported by K. Weiser and F. Stern, Appl. Phys. Letters 5, 117 (1964).
2.H. Kressel and H. Nelson, RCA Rev. 30, 106 (1969).
3.H. Kressel, H. Nelson, and F. Z. Hawrylo, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 2019 (1970).
4.I. Hayashi, M. B. Panish, and P. Foy, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 5, 211 (1969).
5.Z. I. Alferov, V. M. Andreev, E. L. Portnoi, and M. V. Trukan, Fiz. Tekh. Poluprov. 3, 1328 (1969)
5.[Z. I. Alferov, V. M. Andreev, E. L. Portnoi, and M. V. Trukan, Soviet Phys. Semicond. 3, 1107 (1970)].
6.M. B. Panish, I. Hayashi, and S. Sumski, Appl. Phys. Letters 16, 326 (1970).
7.H. Kressel and F. Z. Hawrylo, Appl. Phys. Letters 17, 169 (1970). The lasers studied here are similar to those previously described except that the optical cavity is essentially pure GaAs instead of (AlGa) As.
8.The reported values of diffusion lengths are generally below 1 μm in p‐type material with . For example, Rao‐Sahib and Wittry [J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3754 (1969)]
8.report 0.5–0.75 μm while Kustov and Orlov [Soviet Phys. Semicond. 3, 1457 (1970)] give values below 0.1 μm.
8.It should be noted that the fact that the threshold current density in the lasers reported in Ref. 7 increased in proportion to the cavity width between 0.8 and 2 μm can be explained by optical effects [see M. J. Adams and M. Cross, Phys. Letters 32A, 207 (1970)] as well as by constant electron diffusion length and increasing recombination volume as suggested in Ref. 7.
9.J. K. Butler (unpublished).
10.In the single‐heterojunction laser the refractive index difference Δn is asymmetrical, and it has been shown that only the first‐order mode can propagate if the active region is ⩽ 2.3 μm (Ref. 9).
11.This compares to ̃ 20° for typical single‐heterojunction lasers with threshold current density ̃ 10000 at room temperature.
12.There is also a possibility that a relatively small amount of energy could be present in the fundamental mode at the laser facet. It is a fact that all modes are generated around any waveguide discontinuity and the end facet certainly provides one.
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