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Observation of the transparency of a resonant medium to zero‐degree optical pulses
1.S. L. McCall and E. L. Hahn, Phys. Rev. Letters 18, 908 (1967);
1.H. M. Gibbs and R. E. Slusher, Phys. Rev. A 5, 1634 (1972).
2.S. L. McCall and E. L. Hahn, Phys. Rev. 183, 457 (1969).
3.C. K. Rhodes, A. Szöke, and A. Javan, Phys. Rev. Letters 21, 1151 (1968).
4.The effect of level degeneracy on coherent excitation has also been observed in an experiment in which the population change was measured by means of the subsequent fluorescence: See H. P. Grieneisen, N. A. Kurnit, and A. Szöke, Opt. Commun. 3, 259 (1971).
5.F. A. Hopf, C. K. Rhodes, G. L. Lamb, Jr., and M. O. Scully, Phys. Rev. A 3, 758 (1971).
6.G. L. Lamb, Jr., Rev. Mod. Phys. 43, 99 (1971). This article also gives a comprehensive review of work in the field of ultrashort‐pulse propagation.
7.M. D. Crisp, Phys. Rev. A 1, 1604 (1970).
8.D. C. Burnham and R. Y. Chiao, Phys. Rev. 188, 667 (1969).
9.Large‐energy zero‐degree pulses of specific shapes, related to 4π pulses, are predicted to propagate with low loss without fulfilling this requirement (see Refs. 5 and 6). Details of the propagation behavior, such as the pulse reshaping, will be different for these large‐intensity pulses. Loss of energy from the lower‐intensity wings of the beam profile may also introduce instabilities.
10.S. Namba, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 51, 76 (1961).
11.The voltage applied to the crystal actually consists of a train of double pulses separated by the 100‐nsec round‐trip time to the spark gap, since the pulse is again reflected there. Although the effects reported here could be seen with such pulse trains, we present only data taken by using a boxcar integrator with a 30‐nsec gate to select the first pair of pulses from the output of the Cu: Ge detector.
12.F. Shimizu, J. Chem. Phys. 52, 3572 (1970);
12.F. Shimizu, Appl. Phys. Letters 16, 368 (1970).
13.T. Shimizu and T. Oka, Phys. Rev. A 2, 1177 (1970).
14.The curves in Fig. 2 were measured as a continuous function of pressure. The points correspond to pressure at which the Pirani pressure gauge was calibrated by means of a McCleod gauge at pressures above 150 mTorr and by means of the cw absorption at lower pressures.
15.The pressure broadening of (see Ref. 12) does not become significant until pressures exceed several hundred mTorr.
16.cf., Fig. 5 of Ref. 7. A more detailed analysis of these results will be presented elsewhere.
17.It should be noted that regardless of the continuous changes in pulse envelope, the carrier frequency remains unshifted if the laser frequency coincides with the center of a symmetrically shaped absorption line (see Refs. 6 and 7).
18.This behavior has also been described in terms of the superradiant decay of an N‐particle system excited by a propagating pulse. See, for example, F. T. Arecchi and E. Courtens, Phys. Rev. A 2, 1730 (1970);
18.R. Friedberg and S. R. Hartmann, Phys. Letters A 37, 285 (1971).
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