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Effect of thick Cs–O layers on photoemission from negative‐electron‐affinity cathodes
1.L. W. James and J. J. Uebbing, Appl. Phys. Letters 16, 370 (1970).
2.R. L. Bell, L. W. James, G. A. Antypas, J. Edgecumbe, and R. L. Moon, Appl. Phys. Letters 19, 513 (1971).
3.H. Sonnenberg, Appl. Phys. Letters 19, 431 (1971).
4.The ratio of Cs to remains constant.
5.A monolayer of Cs is defined here as the amount of Cs required to optimize the photoresponse at 6328 Å with Cs alone. For GaAs, S. Garbe [Solid‐State Electron. 12, 893 (1969)] measured for optimum Cs coverage,
5.and J. J. Uebbing and L. W. James [J. Appl. Phys. 41, 4505 (1970)] measured Giving equal weight to these measurements, we determine a mean‐optimum Cs coverage of This is equivalent (within experimental accuracy) to one monolayer of Cs, since there are unit cells on the surface.
6.L. W. James and J. L. Moll, Phys. Rev. 183, 740 (1969).
7.High escape probabilities such as this were achieved with 〈110〉 GaAs surfaces. Our best yield curves obtained in this material are comparable to those obtained on (111B) GaAs by L. W. James, G. A. Antypas, J. Edgecumbe, R. L. Moon, and R. L. Bell, J. Appl. Phys. 42, 4976 (1971). Our yield is slightly better than theirs above 1.65 eV, but slightly lower than theirs below about 1.6 eV. The decreased yield in the infrared is probably due to the low doping of our material ().
8.L. W. James, J. L. Moll, and W. E. Spicer, 1968 Proceedings of the Symposium on GaAs (IPPS, London, 1969), p. 230.
9.Since the setting of the Cs channel at the point of equilibrium (Cs loss≃Cs gain) remains essentially constant at all exposure levels, it appears safe to assume that the sticking coefficient of Cs on and on GaAs does not change significantly with coverage when the simultaneous‐exposure technique of processing is used.
10.Since the thickness of the low‐work‐function surface has such a profound effect on photoemission, it is not surprising that a great deal of progress in the processing of infrared cathodes has recently been made.
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