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Effect of refraction on spot‐size dependence of laser‐induced breakdown
1.P. J. Berger and D. C. Smith, Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 167 (1972).
2.A. V. Phelps, in Physics of Quantum Electronics, edited by P. L. Kelly, B. Cox, and P. E. Tannenwald (McGraw Hill, New York, 1966), p. 538.
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8.Large refractive effects induced by breakdown in the focus of a pulsed laser beam have been observed by E. Yablonovich (unpublished).
9.It has been observed by Y. L. Pan, J. R. Simpson, and A. F. Bernhardt (unpublished) that energy can be lost from a 2‐nec pulse focused to a 0.02‐cm‐radius spot in a mixture at fluences of 10–20 without spark formation.
10.E. Yablonovich, Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 121 (1973).
11.A. H. Guenther and W. K. Pendleton, in Laser Interaction and Related Phenomena, Vol. 2, edited by H. J. Schwarz and H. Hora (Plenum, New York, 1972), p. 97.
12.These are representative values for molecular gases at STP. The initial number of electrons is, of course, arbitrary; the number used was chosen to give ten initial electrons in a typical focal volume of
13.A. J. Alcock and M. C. Richardson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 667 (1968).
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