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Josephson junctions at 45 times the energy‐gap frequency
1.N. R. Werthamer, Phys. Rev. 141, 255 (1966).
2.For mixing experiments with a current‐biased junction, the self‐oscillation is not directly involved. See D. G. McDonald, A. S. Risley, J. D. Cupp, and K. M. Evenson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 162 (1971);
2.and C. A. Hamilton, J. Appl. Phys. 44, 2371 (1973) for further discussion.
3.V. Ambegaokar and A. Baratoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 11, 104 (1963).
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8.H. S. Carslaw and J. C. Jaeger, Conductions of Heat in Solids (Oxford U.P., London, 1959), 2nd ed., pp. 214–217.
9.Measurements of junction hysteresis in conjunction with a knowledge of shunt resistance also allow estimates of junction size. In general, our junctions exhibit hysteresis for critical currents For the junction of Fig. 2, for example, we estimate [W. C. Stewart, Appl. Phys. Lett. 12, 277 (1968)] and calculate a junction radius of
10.H. M. Rosenberg, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 247, 441 (1954). We have selected this thermal conductivity datum because it refers to Nb with a residual resistivity ratio of 10 which is comparable to our Nb.
11.A. J. Dahm, A. Denenstein, D. N. Langenberg, W. H. Parker, D. Rogovin, and D. J. Scalapino, Phys. Rev. Lett. 22, 1416 (1969).
12.Estimated from hysteresis considerations (Ref. 9) to be 2.4 THz.
13.F. R. Petersen, D. G. McDonald, J. D. Cupp, and B. L. Danielson, Phys. Rev. Lett. 31, 573 (1973).
14.C. C. Grimes and S. Shapiro, Phys. Rev. 196, 397 (1968).
15.Probably the thermal time constant is determined by the electron‐lattice relaxation time which is See M. Tinkham, Phys. Rev. B 6, 1747 (1972).
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