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Characteristics of high‐field preionized discharges for transversely excited waveguide lasers
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5.Lava is the trade name for an easily machinable ceramic insulator, obtainable from American Lava Corporation.
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7.Since these characteristics were found to change during the first few minutes of operation before reaching a relatively stable condition, each cathode pin was “aged” for approximately 15 min under standard conditions ( ) before any data was recorded.
8.J. D. Cobine, Gaseous Conductors (Dover, New York, 1958).
9.The cathode fall increases when the cathode current density exceeds the “normal” value (abnormal glow). As the discharge current is reduced, the cathode area occupied by the discharge shrinks in such a way that the current density remains at the “normal” value, and the cathode fall voltage remains constant. At sufficiently low currents, the diameter of the cathode spot becomes comparable with the thickness of the dark space (subnormal glow) and the cathode fall voltage again increases. For instance, see: A. von Engel, Ionized Gases (Oxford U.P., Oxford, 1965), p. 233.
10.W. T. Leland, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 466 (1976).
11.We have assumed, for this calculation, that the discharge has a cross section equal to the area of the 0.5‐mm‐diam preionization cathode.
12.A. P. Napartovich, V. G. Naumov, and V. M. Shashkov, Sov. J. Plasma Phys. 1, 449 (1975).
13.D. Rosenberg and G. K. Wehner, J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1842 (1962). These results are for sputtering with He ions, and only provide a qualitative estimate of the relative sputtering rates for our laser mixture.
14.L. Malter, Phys. Rev. 49, 478 (1936); also see Ref. 8, p. 306.
15.The effect of enhanced emission due to thin insulating films was distinctly observed in our experiments both with naturally grown oxide films of Al and with electron‐beam‐evaporated films of and MgO. In particular, a film‐thickness dependence study of MgO films on Ta indicated a maximum enhancement in the emission for a MgO film thickness of However, these evaporated films deteriorated rapidly at current densities of a few
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