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Instability of a low‐pressure Na–noble‐gas discharge
1.W. P. Allis, Physica C 82, 43 (1976) and references cited therein.
2.H. van Tongeren, Philips Res. Rep. Suppl. No. 3, (1975);
2.H. van Tongeren and J. Heuvelmans, J. Appl. Phys. 45, 3844 (1974).
3.Compare, e.g., Fig. 7 of T. G. Verbeek and H. van Tongeren [J. Appl. Phys. 48, 577 (1977)]
3.and Fig. 2 of M. J. C. van Gemert, S. C. Lincolne, and J. Heuvelmans [Philips Res. Rep. 32, 8 (1977)].
4.J. H. Waszink and J. Polman, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2403 (1969).
5.B. K. Ridley, Proc. Phys. Soc. (London) 82, 954 (1963).
6.A. F. Schwarz, Int. J. Electron. 29, 19 (1970).
7.Low‐pressure metal‐vapor noble‐gas discharges of the type used are well known to show radial depletion of the metal vapor (Refs. 2 and 4). For the experimental confirmation see Fig. 2 of R. Bleekrode and J. W. v. d. Laarse [J. Appl. Phys. 40, 2401 (1969)] for Cs‐Ar;
7.and Fig. 6 of L. Vriens [J. Appl. Phys. 48, 653 (1977)] for a Na‐Ne mixture.
8.ac operation without a dc bias current was chosen to avoid “domain formation” (Ref. 4) observed in a dc‐operated Cs‐noble‐gas discharge. We observed a similar effect in a dc‐operated Na‐Ne‐Ar discharge, viz., a discontinuity moving from anode to cathode with velocity of about This effect is ascribed by us to an insufficient control of the inner tube wall temperature.
9.This is known for Gunn diodes. See P. Gruétin, IEEE Trans. Electron. Devices ED‐14, 522 (1967).
10.E. W. McDaniel, Collision Phenomena in Ionized Gases (Wiley, New York, 1964), Chap. 9.
11. for a Maxwellian velocity distribution of the electrons and a velocity‐independent cross section for elastic electron‐Ne collisions.
12.An upper bound for follows from the assumption that the electron density obeys a zero‐order Bessel profile. Then is the tube radius and is the ambipolar diffusion coefficient. Using and (Ref. 2 with it follows that It is an upper bound because the actual profile differs from that of a zero‐order Bessel function. Hence higher‐order Bessel functions, with shorter time constants, also contribute to
13.Similar to the discussion in Ref. 12 we have is the diffusion coefficient for Na atoms in Ne, taken from F. C. M. Coolen and H. L. Hagedoorn [Physica C 79, 402 (1975)].
14.The time constant is estimated to be because the extra evaporated Na atoms (due to an eventual increase in gas temperature) can reach the discharge volume only by diffusion [J. Bloem (private communication)].
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