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Electro‐optic guided‐to‐radiation mode conversion in Cu‐diffused LiTaO3 waveguide with periodic electrodes
1.D. Marcuse, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE‐11, 759 (1975).
2.Y.‐K. Lee and S. Wang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE‐12,
3.J. Noda, T. Saku, and N. Uchida, Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 308 (1974).
4.See, for instance, Eq. (59) of H. F. Taylor and A. Yariv [Proc. IEEE 62, 1044 (1974)].
5.The more birefringent the electro‐optic material becomes, the shorter electrode period required for the field overlap. For instance, a diffused mode converter requires a period shorter than 10 μm.
6.This value of the electrode spacing was chosen by considering the diffraction spreading of optical beam in the plane diffraction spreading of optical beam in the plane parallel to the crystal surface due to the planar waveguide configuration employed here. For increasing the efficiency of the device, much closer electrode spacing is desirable so that the induced perturbation be restricted to the diffusion layer. However, this requires a channel waveguide configuration to suppress the diffraction spreading.
7.When the radiation is directed away from the propagation axis enough to assume that no power is converted back from the radiation field to the guided mode, the perturbation analysis applies and a simple formula is available for the radiation loss that is directly related to the conversion efficiency (Ref. 1).
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