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Step‐edge fabrication of ultrasmall Josephson microbridges
1.See AIP Conf. Proc. 44 (1978), for a recent review of Josephson‐effect device applications.
2.D. A. Weitz, W. J. Skocpol, and M. Tinkham, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 4873 (1978).
3.D. G. McDonald, F. R. Petersen, J. D. Cupp, B. L. Danielson, and E. G. Johnson, Appl. Phys. Lett. 24, 335 (1974).
4.M. Tinkham, M. Octavio, and W. J. Skocpol, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 1311 (1977);
4.M. Octavio, W. J. Skocpol, and M. Tinkham, IEEE Trans. MAG‐13, 739 (1977).
5.Li‐Kong Wang, Alessandro Callegari, Bascom S. Deaver, Jr., Daniel W. Barr, and Robert J. Mattauch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 306 (1977).
6.John Warlaumont, J. C. Brown, and R. A. Buhrman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 34, 415 (1979).
7.P. L. Richards, in Semiconductors and Semimetals, edited by R. K. Willardson and A. C. Beer (Academic, New York, 1977), Vol. 12, p. 395.
8.In general the microbridge size must be comparable to or less than the superconducting coherence length for ideal Josephson behavior; see K. K. Likharev, Rev. Mod. Phys. 51, 101 (1979).
8.A possible exception is the case of granular superconductors, where tunneling between grains may lead to nearly ideal Josephson behavior even in large microbridges; see G. Deutscher and R. Rosenbaum, Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 366 (1975).
9.R. B. Laibowitz, A. N. Broers, J. T.C. Yeh, and J. M. Viggiano, Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 891 (1979). For 120 nm length, is only 0.3 mV.
10.R. H. Havemann, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 15, 389 (1978);
10.andM. Heiblum, S. Y. Wang, J. R. Whinnery, and T. K. Gustafson, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE‐14, 159 (1978), have reported the use of film edges for producing oxide‐barrier tunnel diodes.
11.Henry I. Smith, Frank J. Bachner, and N. Efremow, J. Electrochem. Soc. 118, 821 (1971).
12.Ion gun is Commonwealth Scientific Model 2‐30, operated at 5 kV. The milling rate for the chrome film with milling gas is approximately that of the microscope cover‐glass substrate. The use of is suggested by its successful use for reactive‐ion sputter etching, Ref. 13.
13.H. W. Lehmann and R. Widmer, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 15, 319 (1978).
14.M. D. Feuer, D. E. Prober, and J. W. Cogdell, AIP Conf. Proc. 44, 317 (1978);
14.M. D. Feuer and D. E. Prober, IEEE Trans. MAG‐15, 578 (1979), and unpublished.
15.R. B. van Dover, R. E. Howard, and M. R. Beasley, IEEE Trans. MAG‐15, 574 (1979).
16.D. C. Flanders and Henry I. Smith, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. 15, 1001 (1978);
16.D. C. Flanders, Proceedings of the Fifteenth Symposium on Electron, Ion, and Photon Beam Technology, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. (to be published).
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