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1.Wetting phenomena are discussed, e.g., in A. W. Adamson, Physical Chemistry of Surface, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1976), Chap. 11.
2.Homocapillary membranes of geometrically regular structure on the micron scale are commercially available, e.g., for chromatographic studies.
3.See, e.g., L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Fluid Mechanics (Pergamon, New York, 1959).
4.For a rigorous treatment of a similar problem see, e.g., S. Levine and G. Neale, in Wetting, Spreading, and Adhesion, edited by J. F. Padday (Academic, New York, 1978), p. 241.
5.See, e.g., Ref. 1, Chap. 1.
6.Since we are interested in electro‐optic displays, we limit our attention to electric forces. Mechanical or magnetic forces could produce the liquid motion but, generally, they are not suited for displays. For electrical forces in dielectric liquids, see W. F. Pickard, in Progress in Dielectrics, edited by J. B. Birkes and J. Hart (Academic, New York, 1965), pp. 3–39.
7.For a generl reference on contact angle, see Contact Angle Wettability and Adhesion, edited by F. M. Fowkes, Adv. Chem. Series 43 (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1964).
8.See, e.g., J. O’M. Bockris and A. K. N. Reddy, Modern Electrochemistry (Plenum, New York, 1970).
9.Reference 8, p. 702.
10.Reference 1, p. 340.
11.S. Hackwood and G. Beni (unpublished).
12.Alternative configurations are discussed in Ref. 11.
13.E. W. Washburn, Phys. Rev. 17, 273 (1921);
13.for recent generalizations, see R. J. Good, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 42, 473 (1973), and references therein.
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