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Study of x‐ray preionized avalanche discharge XeCl laser at high gas pressures
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6.Polishing of substrates, coating of mirrors, and measurement of spectral reflectance and transmittance are all done within the SIOFM facilities.
7.Vacuum levels are monitored by thermocouple and ionization gages. Low‐level gas pressures are measured by McLeod gages. High‐level gas pressures are measured by calibrated mechanical gages of the Bourdon‐tube type.
8.The temporal relationship between the x‐ray preionization pulse and the avalanche‐discharge pulse is determined by simultaneous recording of the e‐beam diode voltage and the discharge voltage using the Model OK‐19 oscilloscope. The two CRT beams(one in each tube) are set at the same sweep speed and synchronously triggered. The x‐ray and discharge pulses are considered properly synchronized when the 70‐nsec discharge voltage pulse is found to take place within the middle one‐third of the 1.5‐μsec e‐beam voltage pulse.
9.The CRT beam intensity of the Model SS‐1011 oscilloscope employed here for monitoring the laser output waveform is found to be insufficient for direct photographic recording at the indicated writing speed.
10.According to the investigation of our colleague Zhou Fuzheng at SIOFM, the x‐ray continuum from this source under our typical operating conditions shows a spectral peak at 25‐keV photon energy. The mean photon energy is also about 25 keV.
11.R. Azria, L. Roussier, R. Paineau, and M. Tronc, Rev. Phys. Appl. 9, 469 (1974). The x‐ray‐generated secondary electrons can be assumed to be normally distributed about a mean energy of 10 eV, which is roughly the effective first‐ionization potential of the gas mixture under consideration.
12.A pyroelectric‐type energy meter manufactured by the Shanghai Practical Electronic Instruments Company. Calibration is done in accordance with international standard procedures using standard power lamps. Measurement range is 0.01–50 J. At pulse energies below the 10‐J level, measurement accuracy is better than 10%.
13.Each experimental point (open circle) shown in Figs. 2 and 3 represents the algebraic mean of several repeated experiments done at the same charging voltage and gas pressure using 2 to 4 different gas fills at the indicated mixture mole ratios. The meaximum spread of the laser output pulse energy from such repeated experiments is about the mean value, and the average spread is more like From spectral analysis, the XeCl laser output from these experiments is found to split into four strong bands with peak intensities located at 307.67, 307.94, 308.19, and 308.42 nm, respectively. However, most of the pulse energy is concentrated within the two strongest bands atound the 307.94 and the 308.19‐nm peaks.
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