Continuous electrowetting effect
1.G. Beni and S. Hackwood, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 207 (1981).
2.S. Hackwood and G. Beni, Extend. Abstr. Electrochem. Soc. 81‐1, 390 (1981).
3.J. L. Jackel, S. Hackwood, and G. Beni, CLEOS Digest of Topical Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., June 1981), p. 164.
4.G. Beni and M. A. Tenan, J. Appl. Phys. 52, 6011 (1981).
5.S. Hackwood, J. L. Jackel, and G. Beni, Proceedings of Eurodisplay 81, Munich, FRG, Sept. 1981.
6.J. L. Jackel, S. Hackwood, and G. Beni, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 207 (1981).
7.M. A. Tenan, S. Hackwood, and G. Beni, Phys. Rev. B (in press).
8.Physically it is convenient to distinguish wetting from capillarity as follows. Wetting effects are surface tension effects caused by shear forces tangential to the interface. Capillarity effects are surface tension effects caused by a force normal to the interface. The capillary force is produced by the curvature of the interface whereas the wetting force is produced by surface tension variations along the interface.
9.L. E. Sciven and C. V. Sternling, Nature 187, 186 (1960).
10.See, e.g., K. J. Vetter, Electrochemical Kinetics (Academic, New York, 1967).
11.Improvements on the parallel plate capacitor model are possible but the slightly higher accuracy usually does not justify the considerably more complex treatment.
12.The generalization to two dimensions is straightforward, but exact hydrodynamic solutions for complex geometries require elaborate mathematical analysis.
13.For simplicity we have neglected friction in the theory of CEW leading to Eq. (3). However the frictional surface tension can easily be introduced as described in Ref. 4.
14.The motion of charged mercury spheres in electrolytes has been known 16 since 1903. Frumkin and Levich 17 correctly described this motion of spheres but it was not realized 17, 18 that a net charge is not essential to fast capillary motion which, as we have shown occurs also for uncharged materials provided that a field gradient is present over the interface.
15.C. G. M. Marangoni, Ann. Phys. 143, 337 (1871).
16.C. Christiansen, Ann. der Physik IV 12, 1072 (1903).
16.For a recent review see J. C. Zuelcher, Ph.D. thesis, MIT, Sept. 1971.
17.A. N. Frumkin and V. G. Levich, Zhur. Fiz. Khim. 19, 573 (1945)
17.[A. N. Frumkin and V. G. Levich, Acta Physicochem. URSS 20, 769 (1945)].
18.For a comprehensive treatment see V. G. Levich, Physicochemical Hydrodynamics (Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1962).
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