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Doping interface dipoles: Tunable heterojunction barrier heights and band‐edge discontinuities by molecular beam epitaxy
1.G. Margaritondo, Surf. Sci. 132, 469 (1983);
1.G. Margaritondo, Solid State Electron. 26, 499 (1983).
2.F. Capasso, Surf. Sci. 132, 527 (1983);
2.F. Capasso, 142, 513 (1984)., Surf. Sci.
3.R. W. Grant, J. R. Waldrop, and E. A. Krawt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 656 (1983).
4.A. Zur, T. C. McGill, and D. C. Smith, Surf. Sci. 132, 456 (1983).
5.A. Y. Cho, Thin Solid Films 100, 291 (1983).
6.R. C. Miller, D. A. Kleinman, and A. C. Gossard, Phys. Rev. B 29, 7085 (1984).
7.T. S. Te. Velde, Solid State Electron. 16, 1305 (1973);
7.A. Ya. Shik and Y. V. Shmartsev, Sov. Phys. Semicond. 15, 799 (1984). This result is valid for nonideal heterojunctions with interface states and nonzero interface recombination velocity s. All grown heterojunctions belong to this class. In an ideal heterojunction without interface states and under steady state conditions the collection efficiency would be unity, irrespective of the barrier height.
8.S. F. Womac and R. H. Rediker, J. Appl. Phys. 43, 4129 (1972).
9.In previous work on MBE abrupt heterojunctions grown by one of us [H. Kroemer, Wu Yi Chien, H. C. Casey, and A. Y. Cho, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 749 (1978)] a high efficiency was found also for photon energies smaller than the AlGaAs band gap and attributed to a positive interface charge. The lack of such effects in our structures without DID may be due to the greatly improved material quality. Note also that recent experiments by Nottenburg and Ilegems on MBE heterojunctions found an efficiency versus wavelength curve similar to ours (without dipole) with no evidence of interface charges (private communication).
10.K. Hess, Physica B 117, 723 (1983).
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