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Hybrid phase conjugator/modulators using self‐pumped 0°‐cut and 45°‐cut BaTiO3 crystals
1.D. M. Pepper, Opt. Eng. 21, 156–283 (1982), special issue on Nonlinear Optical Phase Conjugation;
1.Optical Phase Conjugation, edited by R. A. Fisher (Academic, New York, 1983);
1.B. Ya. Zel’dovich, N. F. Pilipetsky, and V. V. Shkunov, “Principles of Phase Conjugation,” in Springer Series in Optical Sciences (Springer, Berlin, 1985), Vol. 42;
1.D. M. Pepper, in The Laser Handbook, edited by M. L. Stitch and M. Bass (North‐Holland, Amsterdam, 1985), Vol. 4, pp. 333–485.
2.H. I. Mandelberg, Opt. Lett. 5, 258 (1980).
3.We note that the effects of temporally encoded phase and/or polarization modulation will be “undone” upon reverse transit in the case of an ideal PCM; see, for example, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and M. Vasnetsov, Opt. Commun. 32, 355 (1980).
4.M. B. Klein and R. H. Sipman, J. Appl. Phys. 51, 6101 (1980).
5.H. H. Barrett and S. F. Jacobs, Opt. Lett. 4, 190 (1979).
6.Both crystals (mechanically and electrically poled) were cut from the same boule and purchased from Sanders and Associates, NH. The 45°‐cut crystal was derived from a 0°‐cut sample via rotation by 45° about an a direction [(100)], with (01̄l̄) and (01l̄) faces.
7.Previous studies involving the application of external time‐varying fields across photorefractive materials include (i) enhanced two‐ and four‐wave coupling [S. I. Stepanov, M. P. Petrov, and M. V. Krasinkova, Zh. Tech. Fiz. 54, 1223 (1984);
7.S. I. Stepanov, M. P. Petrov, and M. V. Krasinkova, Opt. Commun. 53, 292 (1985)]
7.and (ii) optical switching effects using bipolar fields [D. M. Gookin and G. W. Gross, Proc. SPIE 567, 26 (1985)]. In our experiments, no evidence of these effects was observed.
8.J. O. White, M. Cronin‐Golomb, B. Fischer, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450 (1982);
8.J. Feinberg, Opt. Lett. 7, 486 (1982);
8.T. Y. Chang and R. W. Hellwarth, Opt. Lett. 10, 408 (1985).
9.G. C. Valley and M. B. Klein, Opt. Eng. 22, 704 (1983).
10.If pure phase modulation operation is desired, simple filtering can be used to eliminate the second harmonic amplitude modulation component.
11.I. P. Kaminow, Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 305 (1966).
12.One can also view the phase encoding of the device as a temporal analog to Feinberg’s (spatial) interferometric studies using self‐pumped PCM’s: Since all the three interacting beams in a self‐pumped, degenerate four‐wave mixer are similarly encoded [e.g., by the phase of the conjugate beam goes as See J. Feinberg, Opt. Lett. 8, 569 (1983).
13.A. Yariv, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE‐9, 919 (1973);
13.T. Tsukada and C. L. Tang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE‐13, 37 (1977).
14.K. MacDonald, J. Feinberg, M. Z. Zha, and P. Gunter, Opt. Commun. 50, 146 (1984);
14.Y. Fainman, E. Klancnik, and S. H. Lee, Opt. Eng. 25, 228 (1986).
15.B. H. Soffer, Y. Owechko, E. Marom, and J. Grinberg, Appl. Opt. 25, 2295 (1986).
16.In our self‐pumped conjugation studies, we observe a decrease in the specular reflectivity from its standard Fresnel value at nearnormal incidence) to upon conjugation; D. M. Pepper, 1986 Annual O. S. A. Conference, talk ♯MEE1.
17.M. Cronin‐Golomb and A. Yariv, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4906 (1985).
18.See, for example, V. I. Busurin, A. S. Semenov, and N. P. Udalov, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 15, 595 (1985);
18.M. Johnson, Opt. Eng. 24, 961 (1985).
19.M. Cronin‐Golomb, B. Fischer, J. Nilsen, J. O. White, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 219 (1982);
19.R. A. McFarlane and D. G. Steel, Opt. Lett. 8, 208 (1983).
20.Mode‐locked PCR’s have been demonstrated using “active” four‐wave mixing PCM’s; see, for example, Chapter 10 of Optical Phase Conjugation, edited by R. A. Fisher (Academic, New York, 1983).
21.R. K. Jain and K. Stenersen, Opt. Lett. 9, 546 (1984).
22.M. Cronin‐Golomb, K. Y. Lau, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 567 (1985).
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