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THE MECHANISM OF BAND‐GAP LASER ACTION IN InSb DIODES
1.R. J. Phelan, A. R. Calawa, R. H. Rediker, R. J. Keyes, and B. Lax, Appl. Phys. Letters 3, 143 (1963).
2.R. J. Phelan and R. H. Rediker, Proc. IEEE 52, 91 (1964).
3.C. Benoit a la Guillaume and P. Lavallard, Solid State Commun. 1, 148 (1963).
3.See also M. Bernard, C. Chipaux, G. Duraffourg, M. Jean‐Louis, J. Loudette, and J.‐P. Noblanc, Compt. Rend. 257, 2984 (1963).
4.See, e.g., L. R. Weissberg and J. Blanc, Phys. Rev. 131, 1548 (1963).
5.The (passive) “optical depth” of such diodes is necessarily very large in any direction parallel to the junction plane. Thus the “spontaneous” emission lines (well below threshold) usually show considerable breadth, due to self‐absorption [R. D. Cowan and G. H. Dieke, Rev. Mod. Phys. 20, 418 (1948)].
5.Spectroscopy is facilitated by using an optically thin sample. This can be accomplished by reducing the thickness mechanically [S. Zwerdling, W. H. Kleiner, and J. P. Theriault, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 2118 (1961)], or by saturating the transitions involved (or perhaps producing a partial inversion of the levels as in a laser diode just above threshold). If interference due to the resonator mode structure can be removed, the induced emission spectrum should be similar to the spontaneous emission spectrum of an optically thin sample, but measured on an operating laser it indicates the energy levels for the laser action.
5.The distinction between induced and spontaneous emission is not fundamental, but merely a question of photon occupation numbers [See, e.g., L. I. Schiff, Quantum Mechanics (McGraw‐Hill Book Company, Inc., New York, 1955), 2nd ed., p 400].
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