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Optical properties of transparent and heat reflecting ZnO:Al films made by reactive sputtering
1.C. G. Granqvist, Phys. Scr. 32, 401 (1985).
2.I. Hamberg and C. G. Granqvist, J. Appl. Phys. 60, R123 (1986).
3.T. Minami, H. Nanto, and S. Takata, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 23, L280 (1984);
3.T. Minami, H. Nanto, and S. Takata, Thin Solid Films 124, 43 (1985);
3.T. Minami, H. Sato, H. Nanto, and S. Takata, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, L781 (1985).
4.T. Minami, H. Nanto, and S. Takata, Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 24, L605 (1985).
5.D. Raviendra and J. K. Sharma, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 838 (1985).
6.I. Hamberg, A. Hjortsberg, and C. G. Granqvist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 362 (1982);
6.I. Hamberg and C. G. Granqvist, Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 721 (1984).
7.S.‐J. Jiang and C. G. Granqvist, Proc. Soc. Photo‐Opt. Instrum. Eng. 562, 129 (1985).
8.Perpendicular substrate orientation was seen to be advantageous in the work by Minami et al. (Refs. 3, 4). In contrast to their assertion, we find no need to apply an external dc magnetic field.
9.RBS measurements were performed at the Uppsala Tandem Accelerator Laboratory, Uppsala, Sweden.
10.Landoldt‐Börnstein, Numerical Data and Functional Relationship in Science and Technology, New Series III/17b, 35 (1982);
10.III/22a, 160 (1987).
11.In principle one should include a susceptibility due to phonons in the thermal infrared range. However, their influence can be neglected at high electron densities.
12.R. E. Gerlach, J. Phys. C 19, 4585 (1986).
13.When the oxide of a trivalent metal such as Al is added to stoichiometric ZnO, its incorporation can be described, using the conventional Kröger nomenclature, as predicting that the densities of ionized impurities and electrons should indeed be the same. Further details are given by G. Neumann, in Current Topics in Materials Science, edited by E. Kaldis (North‐Holland, Amsterdam, 1981), Vol. 7, p. 153.
14.Physically, the band gap widening is caused by the Burstein‐Moss effect being only partially balanced by manybody interactions; cf. Ref. 2, and I. Hamburg, C. G. Granqvist, K.‐F. Berggren, B. E. Sernelius, and L. Engström, Phys. Rev. B 30, 3240 (1984).
15.The integrated optical quantities were obtained by averaging over the photopic luminous efficiency of the eye [G. Wyszecki and W. S. Stiles, Color Science, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1982), p. 256],
15.the AM1 solar irradiance spectrum [M. P. Thekaekara, in Solar Energy Engineering, edited by A. A. M. Sayigh (Academic, New York, 1977), p. 37], and a Planck spectrum corresponding to 300 K, respectively. was derived assuming that the ZnO:Al film was backed by an opaque layer (cf. Ref. 2).
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