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Lasing threshold in quantum well surface‐emitting lasers: Many‐body effects and temperature dependence
1.See the review by K. Iga, F. Koyama, and S. Kinoshita, J. Quantum Electron. 242, 1845 (1988), and references therein.
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15.It is possible that the band gap can be reduced merely by heating effects. However, the large energy reduction requires temperature rise on the order of 100 K over ambient. Such large temperature changes can be readily detected from the energy reduction (red shift) of the longitudinal modes. We have previously measured energy shifts of these modes to be Consequently mode shifts should occur with 100 K. temperature changes. Further, the mode shift should increase with incident power onto the sample. Such effects are not observed in the experiments, indicating that heating is not primarily responsible for the observed band‐gap renormalization.
16.The analysis is modified if energy‐level broadening or the T dependence of periodic gain is included. However, the quantum wells in this study are relatively thick which minimizes broadening effects. Further, threshold vs T measurements of ESELs with and without periodic gain (see Ref. 4) give similar results.
17.P. Blood, S. Colak, and A. I. Kucharska, Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 599 (1988).
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