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Optical measurement of electron bunching in vacuum
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5.Alternatives considered include various kinds of probes, which perturb, Thompson scattering and conventional interferometry (including heterodyne versions of both) which are less sensitive, and particle beams and spectroscopy, which usually provide only order‐of‐magnitude or qualitative information due to difficulties of interpretation.
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11.This procedure was also applied to i, the resulting value was divided into the observed pulse height, and this ratio was used as a slight multiplicative correction to each value.
12.A three parameter curve including an offset was used to obtain the reduced chi‐squared value of 1.02. The offset of due to imperfect background subtraction has been subtracted out of both the data and curve in Fig. 3.
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