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Pressure dependence of ionization efficiency in sputtering magnetrons
1.A. E. Wendt, M. A. Lieberman, and H. Meuth, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 1827 (1988).
2.T. E. Sheridan, M. J. Goeckner, and J. Goree, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 30 (1990).
3.J. E. Miranda, M. J. Goeckner, J. Goree, and T. E. Sheridan, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 1627 (1990).
4.S. M. Rossnagel and H. R. Kaufman, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 6, 223 (1988);
4.Ref. 3 offers some evidence that bulk electrons also contribute to ionization, but we do not consider them in this letter.
5.T. E. Sheridan and J. Goree, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 7, 1014 (1989).
6.M. J. Goeckner, J. Goree, and T. E. Sheridan, IEE Trans. Plasma Sci. (to be published, April 1991).
7.T. E. Sheridan and J. Goree, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 17, 884 (1989).
8.R. J. Carman, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 22, 55 (1989).
9.The formal definition of is different from the one wc used in earlier papers because here we have improved upon the simulation by not assuming a fixed energy loss in ionizing collisions.
10.S. M. Rossnagel, J. Vac. Sci. A 6, 19 (1988) reported that a sputtering wind heats and rarefies the neutrals in a sputtering discharge; we neglect this effect.
11.Makato Hayashi, Nagoya Institute of Technology Report No. IPPJAM‐19 (Research Information Center, IPP/Nagoya University, Nagoya Japan, 1981), errata 1982.
12.T. E. Sheridan, M. J. Goeckner, and J. Goree, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 8, 1623 (1990).
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