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Epitaxy of LiF on Ge(100)
1.A gap of about 14.5 eV was reported in: M. Piacentini, Solid State Commun. 17, 697 (1975).
2.A gap of eV was found in: M. Piacentini, D. W. Lynch, and C. G. Olson, Phys. Rev. B 13, 5530 (1976).
3.A gap of eV was determined and a large negative electron affinity was inferred from the onset of photoemission from single-crystal LiF(l00) in F. J. Himpsel, thesis (University of Munich 1976) (unpublished).
4.An electron affinity of —2.3 eV can be inferred by combining the band gap of Ref. 3 with the position of the valence band maximum at 11.8 eV below the vacuum level in W. Pong and C. S. Inouye, J. Electron. Spectrosc. Rel. Phenom. 11, 165 (1977).
5.P. Wurz, J. Sarnthein, W. Husinsky, G. Betz, P. Nordlander, and Y. Wang, Phys. Rev. B 43, 6729 (1991).
6.The radiation exposure needed for taking the photoelectron spectra was more than an order of magnitude lower than the onset of radiation damage. To see radiation damage we had to expose the sample to the times stronger zero order light.
7.L. J. Terminello, D. A. Lapiano-Smith, E. A. Eklund, J. J. Barton, and F. J. Himpsel (unpublished).
8.The thickness of 500 Å LiF deposited could have decreased substantially during annealing.
9.F. J. Himpsel, J. A. Knapp, J. A. Van Vechten, and D. E. Eastman, Phys. Rev. B 20, 624 (1979);
9.J. F. Morar, F. J. Himpsel, G. Hollinger, G. Hughes, and J. L. Jordan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 1960 (1985).
10.The single crystals had to be heated during measurement to overcome charging.
11.C. Jouanin, J. P. Albert, and C. Gout, II Nuovo Cimento 28, 483 (1975);
11.A. Zunger and A. J. Freeman, Phys. Rev. B 16, 2901 (1977);
11.A. Barry Kunz, Phys. Rev. B 26, 2056 (1982).
12.M. W. Cole and M. H. Cohen, Phys. Rev. Lett. 23, 1238 (1969).
13.The bound image states form a Rydberg series with the lowest state bound by 0.2–0.3 eV for LiF; see J. Sak, Phys. Rev. B 6, 3981 (1972).
14.Image potential states have been studied extensively for metal surfaces. The lifetimes of bound states are in the femtosecond regime, while on LiF their lifetime should be infinite. See, e.g., P. M. Echenique and J. B. Pendry, Prog. Surf. Sci. 32, 111 (1990);
14.W. Steinmann, Appl. Phys. A 49, 365 (1989);
14.R. W. Schoenlein, J. G. Fujimoto, G. L. Eesley, and T. W. Capehart, Phys. Rev. B 43, 4688 (1991).
15.U. Barjenbruch, S. Fölsch, and M. Henzler, Surf. Sci. 211/212, 749 (1989).
16.J. R. Lince, J. G. Nelson, and R. S. Williams, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 1, 553 (1983).
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