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Silicon wafer bonding studied by infrared absorption spectroscopy
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13.The perpendicular absorption is times stronger than the parallel absorption at the interface and than the absorption at the outer surfaces (internal reflection). Experimentally, the enhancement is estimated by comparing the perpendicular components of the Si-H absorption of HF-etched Si(100) before and after bonding (≈20) and our data on H in oxide with those of H. Ogawa and T. Hattori, Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 577 (1992) (≈24).
14.For hydrophobic samples, rinsing was necessary for joining because of dust particles on the unrinsed surfaces (poor air quality). After rinsing, HF-etched wafers could be partially joined. While most of the joined wafers separated upon subsequent handling (dicing, beveling, or chemical cleaning), some remained joined and were used for this study. Such samples could then be bonded by annealing to 1100 °C.
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