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High mobility GaAs heterostructure field effect transistor for nanofabrication in which dopant‐induced disorder is eliminated
1.Certain types of 1D and 0D structures can be fabricated without surface processing using the cleaved edge overgrowth technique. See: Loren Pfeiffer, K. W. West, H. L. Stormer, J. P. Eisenstein, K. W. Baldwin, D. Gershoni, and J. Spector, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1697 (1990).
2.Surface depletion in GaAs necessitates placing the doping layer between the 2DEG and the surface. Modulation doped nanostructures in semiconductors that have no surface states (such as InGaAs) might be free of the problems outlined in the text, but their epitaxy is not as far advanced as GaAs.
3.J. A. Nixon, J. H. Davies, and H. U. Baranger, Phys. Rev. B 43, 12638 (1991).
4.An intrinsic limit to the mobility of a gated 2DEG is scattering between the electrons in the channel and the gate. This effect is orders of magnitude too small to be important in devices with gate-channel separations over 100 Å. See: P. M. Solomon, P. J. Price, D. J. Frank, and D. C. La Tulipe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 2508 (1989).
5.R. A. Kiehl, P. M. Solomon, and D. J. Frank, IBM J. Res. Dev. 34, 506 (1990).
6.An alternative is to transfer charge to the gated structure from a layer of GaAs directly below the pattern. Characterization of the structure is limited to optical and capacitive techniques. See: H. Drexler, W. Hansen, J. P. Kotthaus, M. Holland, and S. P. Beaumont, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 7, 1008 (1992).
7.B. E. Kane, L. N. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, and C. K. Harnett, Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2132 (1993).
8.L. Pfeiffer, K. W. West, H. L. Stormer, and K. W. Baldwin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1888 (1989).
9.M. Missous, W. S. Truscott, and K. E. Singer, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 2239 (1990).
10.K. W. Baldwin (private communication).
11.C. P. Lee, R. Zucca, and B. M. Welch, Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 311 (1980).
12.Theories purporting to explain orientation effects in GaAs invoke stress enhanced lateral diffusion of dopants during alloying and piezoelectric effects. Recent attempts to model these effects in GaAs are found in S.-H. Lo and C.-P. Lee, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 3, 2130 (1990). Also: P. I. McNally, J. J. Rosenberg, T. N. Jackson, and J. C. Ramirez, Solid-State Electron. 36, 1597 (1993).
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