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Surface ripples, crosshatch pattern, and dislocation formation: Cooperating mechanisms in lattice mismatch relaxation
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12.The layer thickness has been determined of cross-sectional samples. Therefore, we used parts of the sample, where first dislocations have formed, assuming that the equilibrium position of dislocations during this stage of growth corresponds to the chemical interface.
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14.A rough criterion for preferred dislocation nucleation at troughs based on an energetic assessment for the critical layer thickness is given by Matthews et al. (Ref. 15): The critical thickness of a continuous layer is essentially given by the critical radius of a dislocation half-loop The critical radius depends on the shear stress T according to If the shear stresses at the trough is enhanced by a factor S(λ/A) (compared to that of a two-dimensional strained layer) the critical thickness is reduced by while the strained layer thickness is reduced to Thus dislocation nucleation is preferred if
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16.This contrast is due to strain relaxation at surface steps, which can easily be seen by the asymmetric contrast behavior of steps at the center of the trough in Fig. 3 marked with t: the contrast of steps is dark at one side of the trough and bright at the other side of the trough. The line where the contrast changes from dark to bright is exactly the center of the trough.
17.M. Albrecht, S. Christiansen, and H. P. Strunk, Phys. Status Solidi 150, 453 (1995).
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