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Aspect ratio independent etching of dielectrics
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12.The simulation domain is discretized by square cells; 25×25 cells/ are used, where W=trench width.
13.Since etching is not simulated, the chemistry is irrelevant in this study.
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16.For ion-limited oxide etching, the etch rate is proportional to the ion energy flux, see J. Ding and N. Hershkowitz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1619 (1996).
17.A value lower than 1 MV/cm is justified by the fact that doped CVD oxide—typically used in trench and via isolation—is not as good as a dielectric as thermal oxide (Ref. 15). Furthermore, it was reported in Ref. 8 that etching of contact holes in a plasma (=35 eV) stops at a depth of 1.5 μm with 100 V bias; then =(100−35)/1.5=43 V/μm or 0.43 MV/cm.
18.Bulk conduction or direct discharge between the upper sidewalls and the trench bottom seem implausible. Note, however, that our conclusions are not dependent on the exact electron transport mechanism, provided that there is a voltage threshold that controls the current flow.
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