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Cavitation and acoustic emission around laser-heated microparticles
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18.It was suggested in Ref. 1 that stable gas production from laser-heated particles was the origin of the “giant” photoacoustic effect. Stable gas production was observed in our experiments only when extremely high laser fluence was applied. A high fluence laser pulse creates a large cavitation bubble, upon whose collapse a small permanent bubble containing incondensible gas was occasionally observed. Stable gas bubbles were not seen with moderate laser fluences (up to a few times cavitation threshold). Cavitation appears to be a more important source of pressure generation than permanent gas production.
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26.Threshold for retinal injury is typically expressed as the laser fluence at the cornea or as the total pulse energy entering the eye. The fluence at the retina is usually not known because of the difficulty in determining the spot size at the retina in vivo. To compare our in vitro threshold fluence for cavitation with the threshold for retinal injury, we followed Ref. 23 and assumed a retinal spot size of 30 μm. Using the minimum visible lesion threshold value of 0.43 μJ reported by Cain et al. (Ref. 23) for 60 ps exposure at 532 nm, we obtained a threshold fluence of which is very close to our cavitation threshold of for both 30 ps and 20 ns exposures at the same wavelength.
27.The retinal pigment epithelium contains the highest density of pigment particles in the eye. We have observed cavitation bubble formation inside these cells using the stroboscopic imaging technique, see M. K. Kelly and C. P. Lin, Proc. SPIE 2975, 27 (1997).
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