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Hot electron tunable supercurrent
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8.It is important to realize that the states and contribute to the supercurrent with opposite sign (i.e., electrons in those states carry supercurrent in opposite directions). If one populates the + and − states with equal probability, the total supercurrent in the junction vanishes.
9.H. Pothier, S. Gueron, N. O. Birge, D. Esteve, and M. H. Devoret, Z. Phys. B 104, 178 (1997), and references therein.
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11.This discrepancy may be due to the fact that, in our devices, the normal contacts connected to the control line are not in perfect equilibrium when the control current flows, contrary to what is theoretically assumed in the derivation of the expression for
12.It is worth pointing out that, whereas in our experiments the control current always increases the average energy of the electrons in the junction leading to a decrease in the supercurrent, one can design suitable junctions and control lines in which the opposite effect is achieved. In such a system an increase in the control current results in a reduction of the average electron energy, thus effectively “cooling” [see, e.g., M. M. Leivo, J. P. Pekola, and D. V. Averin, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 1996 (1996)] the electrons and enhancing the supercurrent.
13.A. F. Morpurgo and T. M. Klapwijk (patent pending).
14.D. Prober, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2119 (1993).
15.In our junctions the product is consistent with what we expect for diffusive SNS superconducting junctions with transparent interfaces [F. K. Wilhelm, A. D. Zaikin, and G. Scön, Czech. J. Phys. 46, 2394 (1996)].
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