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Two-dimensional photorefractive spatial solitons in centrosymmetric paraelectric potassium–lithium–tantalate–niobate
1.M. Segev and A. Agranat, Opt. Lett. 22, 1299 (1997).
2.E. DelRe, B. Crosignani, M. Tamburrini, M. Segev, M. Mitchell, E. Refaeli, and A. J. Agranat, Opt. Lett. 23, 421(1998).
3.M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211 (1994).
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5.M. Segev, M. Shih, and G. C. Valley, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 706 (1996).
6.The first observation of steady-state self-focusing in biased photorefractive crystals was reported by M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Marquez-Aguilar, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408 (1994).
7.The first observation of photorefractive screening solitons was reported by M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Electron. Lett. 31, 826 (1995);
7.M. Shih, M. Segev, G. C. Valley, G. Salamo, B. Crosignani, and P. DiPorto, Opt. Lett. 21, 324 (1996).
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9.V. M. Fridkin, Photoferroelectrics, Springer Series in Solid State Sciences (Springer, Berlin, 1979), Vol. 9.
10.A. S. Kewitsch, A. Yariv, and M. Segev, in Photorefractive Effects and Materials, edited by D. N. Nolte (Kluwer, 1995), Chap. 3.
11.M. Shih, M. Segev, and G. Salamo, Opt. Lett. 21, 931 (1996).
12.This idea was first proposed in Ref. 5, and discussed in detail later on in M. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, M. Segev, H. Lee, R. S. Feigelson, and J. P. Wilde, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 3091 (1997).
12.An important step towards an experimental demonstration of tunable frequency conversion in soliton-induced waveguides was recently reported by S. Lan, M. Shih, and M. Segev, Opt. Lett. 22, 1467 (1997), who have presented solitons in a crystal that is photorefractive and, at the same time, phase matchable for second harmonic generation for near-infrared light at room temperature.
13.This latter case can be intuitively understood by considering the extreme case of almost plane wave incidence, for which the nonlinearity gives rise to the formation of random filaments of the width of the soliton characteristic to the nonlinear change in the refractive index in that specific case. This modulation instability property is universal and occurs for all solitons, except perhaps for those in logarithmic nonlinearity; for those, see A. W. Snyder and D. J. Mitchell, Opt. Lett. 22, 16 (1997).
14.A. W. Snyder, D. J. Mitchell, and Y. S. Kivshar, Mod. Phys. Lett. B 9, 1479 (1995).
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