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A refractive collimator for synchrotron radiation
1.A. Snigirev, V. Kohn, I. Snigireva, and B. Lengeler, Nature (London) 384, 49 (1996).
2.M. Renninger, Z. Naturforsch. A 16A, 1110 (1961).
3.A review of dynamical diffraction in perfect crystals, including the effects of asymmetric reflection is given by B. W. Batterman and H. Cole, Rev. Mod. Phys. 36, 681 (1964),
3.while some applications of highly asymmetric reflections may be found in, e.g., T. Ishikawa, K. Hirano, and S. Kikuta, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 308, 356 (1991).
4.S. Suehiro, H. Miyaji, and H. Hayashi, Nature (London) 352, 385 (1991);
4.A. G. Michette, Nature (London) 353, 510 (1991).
5.B. X. Yang, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 328, 578 (1993).
6.P. Ellaume, J. Synch. Rad. 5, 1 (1998);
6.Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 412, 483 (1998).
7.R. K. Smither, A. M. Khounsary, and S. Xu, Proc. SPIE 3151, 150 (1997).
8.A. Snigirev, B. Filseth, P. Ellaume, T. Klocke, V. Kohn, B. Lengeler, I. Snigireva, A. Souvorov, and J. Tümmler, Proc. SPIE 3151, 164 (1997).
9.Y. Kohmura, M. Awaji, Y. Suzuki, and T. Isjikawa, Proc. SPIE 3449, 185 (1998).
10.Optical constants based on D. T. Cromer and D. A. Liberman, Acta Crystallogr., Sect. A: Cryst. Phys., Diffr., Theor. Gen. Crystallogr. A37, 267 (1981);
10.and W. H. McMaster, N. K. D. Grande, J. H. Mallet, and J. H. Hubbell, Lawrence Radiation Laboratory,
10.Compilation of X-ray Cross Sections (1969) using code based on S. Brennan and P. L. Cowan, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 850 (1992).
11.The transmission aperture has been calculated using the formula 2.35 where is the attenuation length. This formula is based on work in Ref. 6, though similar relationships are found in Refs. 5 and 1.
12.Y. Kohmura, Y. Suzuki, and T. Ishikawa, SPring-8 Newsletter (in Japanese) 3, 28 (1998).
13.The fundamental was chosen because, at the time of the experiment, the beamline had a monochromator that was indirectly water cooled (as opposed to the direct, pin-post, cooling used at many SPring-8 beamlines), and was not able to tolerate the higher heat load from the small gap needed for the third harmonic.
14.The perfection of the (555) crystals was demonstrated by measurement of a nearly ideal nondispersive (+,−) rocking curve (1.2 μrad FWHM). Their contribution to the measured width in the (++) arrangement should be the same 1.2 μrad.
15.One example is high-resolution (meV) monochromators above 20 keV where the angular acceptance of Si reflections can easily be less than 0.5 μrad.
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