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Photonic band engineering through tailored microstructural order
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8.Small particles in suspension are influenced by forces associated with Brownian motion, gravity, viscous drag, and particle–particle and particle–liquid interactions. In the present case, the hydrolysis of the TEOS was base catalyzed, so the pH of the suspension is below the silica zero point of charge such that the surfaces possess a sufficiently high charge to hinder agglomeration. This indeed was the case as the suspensions slowly settled into uniformly packed colloidal solids after several hours under undisturbed conditions (as shown in Fig. 2 and discussed in the text). As the point of this letter is to connect the microstructural characteristics of the solid to the spectral features of its optical band gap, for seminal discussions on colloidal and surface chemistry the reader is referred to: W. Russell, D. Saville, and W. Schowalter, Colloidal Dispersions (Cambridge University Press, New York, 1989).
9.Samples were coated with 10 nm of carbon to minimize charging artifacts. Images were collected at a 6 mm working distance with a 3 keV electron beam and a 30 μm aperture.
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