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Dipyrazolopyridine derivatives as bright blue electroluminescent materials
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10.The device was prepared by thermal evaporation, under a vacuum of of NPB (and CBP consecutively for the necessary case) followed by coevaporation of TPBI and PAP–X, then the cathode of Mg:Ag(10:1), and finally a capping layer of Ag.
11.The relative HOMO/LUMO energy levels were determined using cyclic voltammogram and UV-visible spectra. The HOMO energy levels were obtained (see Ref. 12) by adding a factor of 4.4 to the oxidation potential (vs Ag/AgCl) of the materials, whereas the LUMO energy levels were obtained by subtracting the band gap, calculated from absorption edge, from the HOMO energy levels.
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14.The measurement was carried out with a Keithly 2400 source meter and a Newport 1835 C optical meter, using a Newport 818-ST silicon photodiode, respectively. The device has an effective area of 3.14 mm2.
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