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Photonic crystal waveguides: Out-of-plane losses and adiabatic modal conversion
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7.This amounts to assume that the PC waveguide mode is below the vacuum line. Such situations are favored for strong index confinements, for first-order PC waveguides, and for narrow etches (the effective index of the PC mode, that is smaller than that of the waveguide because of the removal of high-index material in the holes, has to remain larger than the refractive index of the substrate).
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17.This is obvious when considering that the etched and unpatterned membranes present a mirror symmetry with respect to the horizontal yz plane in the center of the waveguide.
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