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Fabrication of palladium-based microelectronic devices by microcontact printing
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6.See technical data sheets from Kurt J. Lesker, Inc. (www.lesker.com).
7.See EPAPS Document No. for experiments that examine the defects in the Pd/SR system. This document may be retrieved via the EPAPS homepage (http://www.aip.org/pubservs/epaps.html) or from ftp.aip.org in the directory/epaps/. See the EPAPS homepage for more information.[Supplementary Material]
8.We measured the rms roughness by tapping-mode AFM (Digital Instruments, D3100 Multimode SPM).
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13.The substrates were stored under ambient conditions but away from thiol-containing compounds until use. We found that the best results from μCP resulted if the substrates were used within 48 h of their preparation.
14.The dilution slows the rate of etching to a controllable rate (i.e., 10–30 s).
15.Palladium-based substrates for electroless deposition of copper were patterned previously by techniques that required lasers and positioning stages (see Refs. 9, 10, and 12). We, and others, have demonstrated the patterning of palladium colloid and palladium (II) catalytic precursors μCP (see Refs. 9 and 11). The direct patterning of palladium metal by μCP does not require special equipment or synthesis of precursors.
16.The electroless-plating solution for copper consisted of (3 g), sodium potassium tartrate (14 g), and NaOH (4 g) in water (100 mL). An aqueous solution of formaldehyde (37.2 wt %, 10 mL) was added just before use.
17.F. A. Lewis, The Palladium Hydrogen System (Academic, New York, 1967).
18.Pd can adsorb up to 900 times its own volume of see Ref. 19.
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22.The mixture of air and is explosive at a concentration of 4 vol % in air.
23.The SAM of alkanethiolates was removed by exposing the Pd wires to an oxygen plasma for 30 s.
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25.Recent research describes the use of gold for heterogeneous catalysis. See M. Haruta, T. Kobayashi, H. Sano, and N. Yamada, Chem. Lett. 29, 405 (1987);
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