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Resonance-enhanced laser-induced plasma spectroscopy for sensitive elemental analysis: Elucidation of enhancement mechanisms
1.For a review of LIPS, see D. A. Rusak, B. C. Castle, B. W. Smith, and J. D. Winefordner, Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 27, 257 (1997).
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5.At lithium concentrations higher than 100 ppm, self-absorption of the 670.8 nm line became significant.
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8.J. D. Wu and N. H. Cheung, Appl. Spectrosc. 55, 366 (2001).
9.All laser fluence refers to the peak fluence of the central hottest (∼90% maximum) region.
10.According to the ICCD manufacturer, an electronic pulse width of 50 ns gave an optical width of 37 ns.
11.H. P. Gu, Q. H. Lou, N. H. Cheung, S. C. Chen, Z. Y. Wang, and P. K. Lim, Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. B58, 143 (1994).
12.H. R. Griem, Plasma Spectroscopy (McGraw–Hill, New York, 1964).
13.G. S. Hurst and M. G. Payne, Principles and Applications of Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (Hilger, Bristol, 1988).
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15.L. St-Onge, M. Sabsabi, and P. Cielo, Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 53, 407 (1998).
16.C. R. Phipps and R. W. Dreyfus, in Laser Ionization Mass Analysis, edited by A. Vertes, R. Gijbels, and F. Adams (Wiley, New York, 1993).
17.The ionization fraction of potassium at and can be estimated from the Saha equation and is about 10%. That gives Typical LIPS plume density is also known to be about to
18.S. F. Wong, Honors thesis, Hong Kong Baptist University, 1998.
19.Y. Iida, Spectrochim. Acta, Part B 45, 1353 (1990).
20.Effects of ambient gas on RELIPS will be reported elsewhere.
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