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Diffusion barrier properties of tungsten nitride films grown by atomic layer deposition from bis(tert-butylimido)bis(dimethylamido)tungsten and ammonia
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7.Thickness measurements and step coverage (on cleaved samples) were made by SEM (Leo 982; resolution of .
8.Composition and number of atoms per unit area were determined by RBS (General Ionics model 4117, 1.7 MeV Tandetron) of samples grown on glassy carbon substrates.
9.Composition was also verified by XPS (Surface Science Lab SSX-100) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (JEOL 2010F equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer).
10.XRD (Scintag model XDS2000) and electron diffraction by transmission electron microscopy (JEOL 2010F) determined that the films are amorphous.
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12.J. S. Becker, Ph.D. thesis, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA, 2003.
13.Roughness measurements were made by AFM (Nanoscope III and IV, Digital Instruments). Surface morphology was also determined by SEM.
14.High-resolution transmission electron microscopy were measured on a JEOL 2010F.
15.Electrical resistivities were obtained on glass substrates using a four-point probe (Veeco model No. FPP-100).
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