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Low-density polymer thin film formation in supercritical carbon dioxide
1.M. A. McHugh and V. Krukonis, Supercritical Fluids Extraction Principles and Practice (Woburn, MA, 1994).
2.T. Koga, Y.-S. Seo, Y. Zhang, K. Shin, K. Kusano, K. Nishikawa, M. H. Rafailovich, J. C. Sokolov, B. Chu, D. Peiffer, R. Occhiogrosso, and S. K. Satija, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 125506 (2002).
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8.As we already reported [T. Koga, Y.-S. Seo, X. Hu, K. Shin, Y. Zhang, M. H. Rafailovich, J. C. Sokolov, B. Chu, and S. K. Satija, Europhys. Lett. 60, 559 (2003)] a roughly 20 Å decrease cannot be avoided in the quick evaporation process. We therefore estimated the “apparent” dilation for the films considering this change to calculate the density.
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10.FT profile is related to the corresponding one-dimensional Patterson function, i.e.: where is the lower limit set as is the higher limit set as and is the film thickness, respectively.
11.A H-VASE spectroscopic ellipsometry (J. A. Woollam Co., Inc.) was used. In order to fit the data, the same three-layer model was used with the literature values for native oxide and Si substrate and the film thicknesses determined by XR.
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